The defendant(被告),a college student,was driving with a passenger. The plaintiff,a 56-year old registered nurse,was walking

along a path(路徑)through the snow along the right side of the road between parked cars and the roadway.A sidewalk was in place,

but it was covered with ice and considered to be dangerous. The director of security had been injured falling on the sidewalk.The

defendant's car struck the plaintiff on the driver's right side causing substantial injury as well as amnesia.Relevant statutes stated

that it is unlawful for pedestrians to walk on the highway where sidewalks are in place.Or in their absence,to walk on the left side

of the road facing traffic.The plaintiff failed on both these elements.


       What is the effect to violation of statute for the plaintiff?  原告違反法律 被告是否可以以原告違反法律作為對被告的抗辯

rule of law

       Section288a of the second Restatement,referred to in principle case,

1. An excused violation of a legislative enactment or an administrative regulation is not negligence.

2. Unless the enactment or regulation is constructed not to permit such excuse,it's violation is excused when

a. the violation is reasonable because of the actor's incapacity

行為者的不得已  ex:行動不方便之人

b. he neither knows nor should know of the occasion for compliance


c. he is unable after reasonable diligence or care to comply


d. he is confronted by an emergency not due to his own misconduct

由於某些事項導致自己的失誤 ex:躲避事務導致車禍

e. compliance  would involve a greater risk of harm to the actor or to others



There are three ways to explain the ability of negligence when there was a violation of statute

1. Violation of statute as rebuttable presumption

違反法令  推定過失

2. Violation of statute as negligence per se

當然過失 本質上有過失

3. Violation of statute as evidence of negligence

違反法令 (證據)





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